Basic principles for preventing accidents

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The basic principle of accident prevention

according to the cause theory of casualty accidents and the analysis results of a large number of accident causes, the accidents are mainly caused by the lack of safety technical measures on equipment or devices, defects in management and insufficient education. Therefore, measures must be taken from the three aspects of technology, education and management, and the three must be organically combined and comprehensively utilized in order to effectively prevent and control accidents

1. safety technical measures

safety technical measures include two aspects: preventing accidents and reducing accident losses. These measures can be summarized into the following categories:

(1) reducing potential risk factors. In the development of new processes and products, try to avoid the use of dangerous substances, dangerous processes and dangerous equipment. For example, when developing new products, try to replace combustible substances with non combustible and non combustible substances. Replace toxic substances with non-toxic or low toxic substances. If there are no flammable, explosive and toxic substances in production, fire, explosion and poisoning accidents will lose their foundation. Therefore, this is the most fundamental measure to prevent accidents

(2) reduce the degree of potential danger. The potential danger can only be harmed when it reaches a certain degree or intensity. By taking some measures to reduce its degree and keep it within the safety range, accidents can be prevented. If there are toxic gases in the working environment, ventilation facilities can be installed to reduce the concentration of harmful gases below the standard value, which will not affect personal safety and health

(3) interlock. When a dangerous state occurs, some elements are forced to interact to ensure safe operation. For example, when the detection instrument shows that the process parameters reach the dangerous value, the control element connected with it will automatically shut down or adjust the system to make it in a normal state or stop safely. At present, due to the increasingly complex chemical and petrochemical production processes, the application of interlocking is also increasing. This is a heavy safety protection device, which can effectively prevent human misoperation

(4) isolated operation or remote operation. According to the theory of accident causation, casualty accidents must be caused by the contact between people and pests. If the two are isolated or kept away from a certain distance, personal accidents will be avoided or the harm to human body will be weakened. Improving the degree of automatic production, setting up isolation barriers and preventing personnel from contacting dangerous substances and dangerous parts are all measures in this regard

(5) set weak links. Install weak components on equipment and devices. When the dangerous factors reach the dangerous value, this place will be destroyed in advance to release energy and ensure safety. For example, install safety valves or rupture discs on pressure vessels, and install fuses on electrical equipment

(6) firm or reinforced. Sometimes, in order to improve the safety of the equipment, the safety factor can be increased, and the safety margin can be increased to ensure sufficient structural strength

(7) warning signs and signaling devices. Warning can remind people to pay attention to dangerous factors or parts in time, so as to take timely measures to prevent accidents. Warning signs use people's vision to attract attention; The warning signal can be used to attract the attention of the wear resistance tester mainly through the layer to be worn and the friction paper of the sample. At present, combustible gas and toxic gas detection and alarm devices, which are widely used, have both light and sound, which can remind people to pay attention from both visual and auditory aspects

(8) closed. That is, dangerous substances and dangerous energy are limited within a certain range, which can effectively prevent accidents or reduce accident losses. For example, if inflammable, explosive, toxic and harmful substances are used, and they are sealed in containers and pipelines without contact with air, fire source and human body, fire explosion and poisoning accidents will not occur. Enclose the equipment prone to explosion with explosion-proof walls. Once it explodes, the destructive energy will not affect the surrounding people and equipment

in addition, there are safety technical measures in other aspects, such as the reasonable layout of production devices, the maintenance of a certain safe distance between buildings and equipment. With the development of science and technology, new and more advanced safety protection technical measures will be developed, which should be selected on the basis of full identification of risks. In the process of putting safety technical facilities into use, it is necessary to strengthen the maintenance and frequent overhaul to ensure good performance, so as to achieve the expected effect

2. Safety education measures

safety education is to carry out safety ideological education and safety technical knowledge education for leaders, managers and operators at all levels of the enterprise. The content of safety ideological education includes national guidelines and policies on safety production and labor protection, as well as laws and regulations. Through education, improve the safety awareness and legal concept of leaders at all levels and employees, firmly establish the idea of safety first, consciously implement various labor protection laws and policies, and enhance the sense of protecting people and productivity. The education of safety technology knowledge includes the education of general production technology knowledge, general safety technology knowledge and professional safety production technology knowledge. Safety technology knowledge is contained in production technology knowledge, and the two must be combined when carrying out safety education for employees. General production technology knowledge includes the basic overview of the enterprise, production process, operation methods, equipment performance and product quality and specifications. General safety technical knowledge education includes the hazard characteristics of various raw materials and products, possible hazard factors in the production process, the law of accident formation, basic safety protection measures and toxic and harmful prevention and control methods, emergency treatment plans under abnormal conditions, emergency rescue and self-help measures in case of accidents, etc. Professional safety technical knowledge education is a special education for special types of work, such as the training and education of special safety technical knowledge such as boiler, pressure vessel, electrical, welding, management of dangerous chemicals, dust prevention and anti-virus. The education of safety technical knowledge should know and be able to understand, not only understand the methods and principles, but also learn to skillfully operate and correctly use all kinds of protective articles, fire-fighting equipment and other protective facilities

3. safety management measures

safety management is to standardize people's behavior in production activities by formulating and holding talks with the heads of state of the two countries to supervise the implementation of relevant safety laws, regulations, norms, standards, rules and regulations, etc., and to avoid the melting of iron tools soaked in electrolytes for a long time, so that there are laws and regulations to follow in labor protection work, and to protect the safety and health of employees in labor by legal means

safety technology, safety education and safety management. The technical measures are to improve the essence of the process and mechanical equipment. 6. The cement pressure testing machine is randomly equipped with color HP printer safety, that is, when people make mistakes in operation, its own safety protection system can automatically adjust and deal with it to protect the safety of equipment and people, so it is the most fundamental measure to prevent accidents. Safety management is to ensure that people engage in work in a certain way, and provide the basis and scheme for taking safety technical measures. At the same time, it is also necessary to strengthen the maintenance of safety protection facilities to ensure normal performance. Otherwise, no matter how advanced safety technical measures can play an effective role. Safety education is a means to improve people's safety quality, master safety technical knowledge, operation skills and safety management methods. Without safety education, it is impossible to take safety technical measures and safety management measures. Therefore, the three measures of technology, education and management complement each other. It must be carried out at the same time, and none of them is missing. Technology (Engineering), education (Education), and management measures (enforcement), also known as "three e measures", are the three pillars to prevent accidents

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